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Bewegung bis zum Ende des Weltkrieges, I, (Berlin, 1935)2, p. 80, note
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: .VII(1991),pp. 3-l3


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Since Emaneipation, New York-Jerusalem 1992, pp. 23-84                  

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R. Liberles, Religious Conflict in Social, : {25}
Context: The Resurgence of Orthodox Judaism in Frankfurt am Main. 1838
1877, Westport, Conn.-London l985                                        

Ben Usiel [Samson Raphael Hirsch], Igerot Tzafon: Neunzehn Briefe {26}
uber Judenthum, Altona 1836, p. 79: '...nenne man diese Einheit, hebr. am
und goy, nicht deutsch "Volk", wenn man vondiesem deutschen Worte das
Merkmal gemeinsamen Bodens nicht zu trennen vermag '
. " : .' '
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'- {28}
I. Hirschler, Emlekbeszed .
nehai kern Jakob felett az 'Izraelita Magyar-Egylet-ben 1865. e'vi
november 18-an, Pest 1866, p. 26                                          


.80 ' ," ,(1914-1870) , ' {29}
I. Schorsch, Jewish Reactions to German Anti-Semitism, 1870-1914 :
New York-London-Philadelphia 1972, p 30                                  

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Bruder! Unter dem Titel "Schomre Hadath" haben wir einen ungarisch {34}
judischen Vereingegrundet, damit er der altglaubigen religiosen Richtung  
als Asyl, der ungarischen Nationalitat und dem Patriotismus als sichere  
Festung diene'. A 'Hitor' Magyar Zsido' Egylet aIapszabalyai Statuten fur
) den ungarisch-judischen Verein 'Glaubenswachter', Pest 1868, p. 5
. , :- (
:
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,Ihr, in deren Adern die Liebe zum erhabene Throne, zum Vaterland {36}
zur ungarischen Nazion Zu deren Sprache und Literatur mit intensiver
.19 ' ,(34 ,) ',Starke pulsirt...

.( ) 4-3 ' , {37}
,("-") ' ,' '
, .
' : - ,
(evek ota mint a hazai ' '
nyelv es tudomanyok partolojatismernek), Magyar Zsido, I (l868), p. 449
' ,' :" ' ,- ' :
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For the first time the ultra-Orthodox party, such as is altogether :
unknown in the West, admits a nationalty, a patriotism due to the land of
birth... they admit the propriety of considering the Magyar 'tongue the
Jewish national language', 'Jewish Orthodoxy and Reform in Hungary 1868
in Hungary N. Katzburg, 'Assimilation :- Chronicle, 12 June
Jewish during the Nineteenth Century Orthodox Positions' B. Vago
(ed) ,Assimilation in Modern Times, Boulder, Colo. 1981 pp. 49-55
'Frankfurt und Ofen-Pest', Ben Chananja, X (1867), pp. 549-554 :

-" , , , ," , , , ' {39}
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Israelit VI (1865), 259-260 {41}
,
. (Nationalisierung) ''

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, ' "

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.' '
- ' ,1930-1862 : , ' :
' ," ,- ' ' ,()
:- ' .51
-Historically, it is easy to show that a number of individuals before Ben
Yehuda had advocated the revival of Hebrew speech, and within a political
revival, too, e.g. Rabbi Yehudah Hay Alkalay, A. Joseph Schlesinger, and
others'.A. Bar-Adon, The Rise and Decline of a Dialect: A Study in the
Revival of Modern Hebrew, The Hague-Paris 1975, p. l6                    


(the) not uncommon European custom of {43}
speaking nothingbut Hebrew on the Sabbath...' T.V. Parfitt, 'The Use of
Hebrew in Palestine 1800-1882' Journal of Semitic Studies (1972), p. 244

' {44}
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- , {47}
,- ,"
Jewish : . ,
Chronicle, 17 November 1876                                              

. ," -" ,(20 ,) {48}

, {49}


1867- 1866 ,Israelit : {50}
;- (Dunant)
- (Vercruysse)
- ; (Nationalitatsprinzip)
: . ,(Adams) ,
.65 ' ,(1867) ;733 ,521-519 ,427-425 ' ,(1866)

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Religion and Nation', 'Judaism and , {57}
National Home', in I. Breuer, Concepts of Judaism, edited by J.S Levinger
' , ' : Jerusalem 1974, pp. 29 36, 82-107, esp. 85-86
, : ,() ' ,'" -
N. Birnbaum : : .59-55 ' ,"
.Strengglaubigkeit und Volkstum', Jeschurun, V (1918), pp. 698-715, esp ,
, .700'
,
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132 ' ," , , ' {60}
M. Hess, Rom und Jerusalem: die letzte : : .40,
.Nationalitatsfrage, Leipzig 1862, p. 2, note, 17, p. 197, Note 1
- .' ' ,
, ,Ben Chananja-:-
.

Das Judenthum das R. Hillel 20- , {61}
Wetsch und seines : Schwiegersohns ist nicht das echte, wahre; es nicht
das Judenthum der Bibel, die dem treuen Bekenner der heiligen Religion
Israels die Achtung aller Volker verheisst, es ist nicht die Religion
des Talmuds, der nirgendwo die diese befremdende Erscheinung findet
,Erlernung von Sprachen usw. verbietet hochstens in dem Sprachenstreit
der seit einigen Jahrzehnten in den dsterreichischen Kronlindern herrscht
der seite einigen Jahrzehnten in den osterreichischen Kronlandern
herrscht seinr Erklarung. Wie der Bohme das Czechische vergottert und das
Deutsche verpont, wie der Ungar das Magyarische verhimmelt und das
Deutsche verwirft, so will R. Hillel Lesch den judisch-deutschen Jargon
als judische Nationalsprache heilig gesprochen und das reine Deutsch
verketzert wissen!!! ' Der sogenannte Chassidismus und dessen
.Vorkampfer', lsraelit, VII(1866),pp. 315-319
.
- Ben Chananja, VII(1864), 1018-1019 .' '
der unter Andern bekanntlich AZdJ 34(1870), l70-171
den Jargon ausdrucklich zur judischen Nationalsprache erhob              

. 1950 {62}
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