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:

-" - ' *
- - ''
.(1990 21-19) " "-" , ,

- , - " "' ," ' {1}
.124-57 ' ,(" ) 23 , ,'

- - , ' {2}
, , , ,
' ,'- ' ," ;"
.232-225 ' ," , ,()

- : , ' {3}
:- , ' ;1990 ,1890-1887
." , '

S. Reichmann & S. Hasson, 'A Cross-cultural Diffusion of : {4}
Colonization: From Posen to Palestine', Annals of the Association of
, ' : ;American Geographers LXXIV (1984), pp. 57-70
D.J. : ,1990 ,1914-1903
Penslar ,Zionism and Technocracy: The Engineering of Jewish Settlement
in Palestine, 1870-1918 Bloomington, Incatalog 1991

,'-' {5}
, -- , ,
1885 . -
' , 40%-
, ' ,'
A. Rodrigue, French : ,' ,
Jews, Turkish Jews: The Alliance Israelite Universelle and the Politics
of Jewish Schooling in Turkey 1860-1925, Bloomington, Incatalog 1990, p.  
(Conseil d'administrion) " .23
(Narcisse Leven) .

, , ,
" ' , ' : .1905 1896 "
, ,() ' ' ,'
.146-125 ' ,1990

, ' : . , : {6}
.1982 ,

L.S. Wcissbach, 'The ,Jewish Elite and the Children of the Poor: {7}
Jewish Apprenticeship Programs in Nineteenth-Century France'
Association for Jewish Studies Review XII, 1 (1987) pp. 123-142 Idem.,
'Oeuvre Industrielle, Oeuvre Morale: The Societeis de Patronage of
Ninteenth-Ctntury France', French Historical Studies, XV, 1 (1987),
.pp. 99-120

{8}
- ,7 ,
Ph.A. Cohen, The Modernization of French Jwery: -
Consistory and Community in the 19th Century, Hanover, New Hampshire
1977, pp. 124-143; J. Berkovitz, The Shaping of Jewish Identity in
Nineteenth-Century France, Detroit 1989, pp. 104-110

' 19 ' , ' {9}
, ;143-136 ' ,() .120-18 ' ,(1962) XVII ,-
.

, .108 ' ,() {10}
- - (1870-1830)
40,000- 1860 .
.
: . :
M. Agulhon, G. Desert & R .57 ' ,62 ,
Specklin, Apoye'e' et crise de la civilisation ,Paysanne, 1789-1914
History de la France rurale, III, Paris 1976, pp. 418-429; R. Fuchs
Abandoned Child nad Welfare in Nintennth-Century France, Albany, New
York 1984, pp. 48, 256

: ;170 ' ,() , ;358 ,88 ' ,() {11}
E. Weber, Peasnts into Frenchmen: The Modernization of Rural France,
.1870-1914, Stanford 1976, p. 329
,"
. ,
' , (Retour a la terre) ' '
, . ,
. - , ,
, ,
.57 ' ,62 , : .

;1922 , ,(1910-1860) , ' {12}
.142 ' ,(18 ,)

" ." , ," ' {13}
'..." '
' , ' : - .127 ', :
- , ' ;108-104' ,(") , ,'-
G. Weill, 'Charles Netter ou Ies oranges de : ;1970 - ,
Jaffa', Les Nouveaux Cahiers, XXI (1970), pp. 2-36

') 1869 14- {14}
" ;132-129 ' ,() ,1869 26- ('
Bullettin semestriel de l'Alliance Israelite : 1869 11-
.(' ' , :) Universelle, 1 semestre 1869, pp. 55-65

, : 1868 2- " {15}
, : 1869 1- ;3-2 ' ,1868,'
.13 , , : ;27-26 ' ,1869,'

' ,1872 ,' , : ;17 ' ,1878 ,' , {16}
.93 ' , 1893 , ;29 ' ,1875 ,' , ;79-78 ,75

11- " , {17}
, , (4 , , 1869
,(13 ,) : ,- -
.85-84 '

" ' , ' ;147-144 ' ,(13 ,) {18}
.3-1 ' ," , ,'"

21 , ;J14/430 ," ,1874 16 , {19}
, ;J41/8 ," ,1874 1 , ;J41/84 ," ,1874
,' , ;29 ' ,1876 ,' , ;44-42 ' ,1874,'
.44 ' ,1876

'Eucalyptus', P. Larousse, : ;95 ' ,1874 ,' , {20}
.Granddictionnaire universel, VII, Paris 1865-1890, p. 18
.-
- , ,1861
. ,
, ,' ' , ' : .
- ' , ' ;42-41 ' ,(" -) ,2
.102-95 ' ,(" ) 59 , ,'

:- ' , ' {21}
.79-55 ,(" ) 44 , ,'-

,) : {22}
.131-120 ' ,() ,76-74 ,57 ' ,(3

- : {*22}
" .
. ;

L. Loubere, The Red and the White, Albany NY 1987, p. 172 {23}

' ,(10 ,) ;131-124 ' ,(11 ,) -' {24}
.89-88

9 , .'(1900-1882) -' , ' {25}
.79 ' ,(21 ,) ;135 ' ,(" )

.117-116 ,105 ' ,(3 ,) {26}

.57-53 ' ,(3 ,) {27}

K, Cross, 'The ;62 ' ,62 {28}
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"Vignoble", M.A. Seminar Paper, Northern Illinois University 1988
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Th. Zeldin, France 1848-1945: Ambition and Love, 0xford 1979, pp. {29}
131-197, esp. pp. 167-170; R. Price, A Social History of 19th Century

France, London 1987, pp. 14-27

.112-108 ' ,(3 ,) {30}

.27-25 ' ,4 1970 - , , ' {31}

D. Angst, Nichtzionisten in Palastina: Die Rolle der Jewish {32}
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' , ' ;187-132 ' ,(3 ,) ;1977
, ,() ' ,'
,1914-1882 - ,- ' ;81-74 ' ,1981
.44-39 ' ,1988

.5 , {33}

' ,(10 ,) ;130-128 ' ,(11 ,) -' {34}
.89

," ,1898 29- , " " {35}
.(" ) 277 ,"
Jewish Colonization Association ,Seances ," : "
,du conseil d'administratiopn (=JCA), Paris, I, 1896-1899
17 ," ' : ;1897 21- 896 14
.255 ," " ,1900

' .88 ' ,(10 ,) {36}
, , ,
."

22 , " ;258 ," ," ,1901 18," {37}
. ,1901 11-

' ,(10 ,) ;130-128 ' ,(11 ,) -' {38}
.89-88

4- 1899 3 ," , ' ," {39}
;257 ," ," ,1900
: , ' : '
- , :' , " ;18 ' ,1955 - ,
.38 ' , 1973

.25 ' ,(31 ,) : {40}

.162-160 ' ,(29 ,) {41}

.270A ," ," ,1901 16 ," {42}

.270C ," ," ,1901 6 , {43}

. {44}

R. Price, A , ;197-131 ' ,(29 ,) : {45}
Social Hiatory of 19th Century France , London 1987, pp. 149-157

,JCA, II ;262 ," ," ,1901 22- 12 , " {46}
.1901 16- ,1900-1901

;262 ," ," ,1905 , 27- 3 , 24 , " {47}
" ;256 , ,1907 10- , 18 , 23 , ' "
" ;262 , ,1910 21- 27 ,1908 24 ,
, ' ' " ;272 , ,1911 31- 27 ,
S.E. Soskin : .262 , ,1913 9- 9 , 13
Altneuland, III, I (1906), pp. 11-12


   
               
       
   


 



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