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.

D. Borrer, A Journey from Naples to Jerusalem, London 1845, : {1}
pp. (64, 80, 188 ; D.S. Burnet, The Jerusalem Mission under the
,Direction of the American Chrisrian Missiionary Society, New York 1977
(Cincinnati 1833), p. 294; H. Petermann, Reisen im Orient, Leipzig 1860
,19- : ,- ' : -1861, p. 209
.90-88 ,82-80 ' ,1979

1852 3 (J.C. Barcley) {2}
C. Minor, Meshullam! or Tidin from : ; 149 ' ,()
Jerusalem, New York 1977 (Philadelphia 1851), p. 129; W.H. Thomson, 'The
Land of the Book', New York 1859, pp. 224, 515, 524 ; W.F Lynch,
Narrative of the United States Expedition to the River Jordan and the
Dead Sea, Philadelphia 1849, p. 289; K. Baedeker, Palestine and Syria: A
Handbook for Travellers, Leipzig-London 1876, p. 289; A. Scholch,
'European Penetration and Economic Developments of Palestine 1856-1882'
R. Owen (ed.,), Studies in the Economie and Social History of Palestine
: ;in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Ceaturies, Oxford 1982, p. 33
213-212 ,194 ' ,1984 , ,1917-1799 , : , '
.59,

' ,() : .Jewish Chronicle, 16.1.1852, p. 120 : {3}
1854 (33 ' ,) .515 ,224
. ,
. ,
, ,' - ' , ' :
' , " ;483-482 ' ,(1974)
, " ;167-150 ' ,1971 - , ,'
," ,(1881-1840) "-"
.66-64 '

. 0.213- - (Uqiyah) {4}
- 1.212 - (oqah)

.' 1.283

- ,(5 ' ,2 ,) {5}
, 1855 .1870-1850
L.T. Fawaz, Merchants and Migrrants in Nineteenth Century : .
- , , .Beirut, London 1983, p. 63
R. Owen, The Middle : . ,-
East in the the world Economy 1800-1914, London 1982, pp. 154-167

- , {6}
,- ,
,59 , .
1885 .6 ,84
,1882-1941 - , ' : . 45- 10
' ,(" ") ,8 , ;249 ' ," -
.2

.249 ' ,() ' {7}

I. Margalith, Le Baron Edmond de Rothschild et la, : {8}
: Colonisation Juive en Palestine 1882-1899 Paris 1920, p. 133
") 22 ,2 , ; 250 ' ,(6 ,)
;2 ' ,(" ') ,8 , ; 11 ' ,("
.249-239 ' ,(" ") 30 ,35 ,

, ' , ' {9}
, ' ; 23-11 ' ,(") 1 , ,'
,'- ' ; 19-9 ' ,(") 11 , ,'
" .47-31 ' ,(") II , ,
.155 ' ,1938 - ,- , ' : .

,A35/26 ," : .82 ' ,1931 - , , ' {10}
,"-" ,{() }
" , ; 1903 ; 7-6 ,8 ,3 ,11
Foreign Office Annual Series No. : .6 ' ,J15/8150 , , ; J15/6384
1186; Diplomatic and Consular Reports on Trade and Finance, Turkey
Report for the Year 1892 on the Trade and Commerce of Palestine, London
1893, p. 4; Foreign Office Annual Series No 1540: Diplomatic and
Consular Reports on Trade and Finance, Turkey, Reportfor the Year 1894
on the Trade of Jaffa, London 1895, p. 2; V. Cuinet, Syrie, Liban et
Palestine, Paris 1896, pp. 596-598

.250 ' ,(6 ,) {11}

' : - , ' {12}
.146-145 ,104-103 ' ," ,

.31 ' ,1980 , , , {13}

- .369 ' - ,- ,- ' {14}
- . '
.

.101 ' ,J15/6384 , ; 168 ' .J15/6410 ," : {15}

' ,(14 ,) - ; 250 ' ,(6 ,) {16}
.258-257 ' ,(1895 15) 32 ,4 , ;373 ,369

.110 ' ,(6 ,) ;392 ' ,J15/6410 ," {17}

.155 ' ,(9 ,) {18}

.127 ' ,J15/6410 ," {19}

' ,J16/6410 , ;30 ' ,J15/6409 , ;228 ' ,J15/6384 ," {20}
,4 , ;154-152 ' ,(6 ,) ;190, 388
.46 ' ,(1895 7) 6

;343 ' ,1973 - ," - , ' {21}
.619 ,427 ' ,J15/6410 , ;67 ' ,J15/6384 ,"

;371 ' ,(14 ,) - ;104 ' ,(12 ,) {22}
.254-253 ' ,J15/6384 ,"

.376 ' ,(14 ,) - ; 104 ' ,(12 ,) {23}

.9-8 ' ,J15/6384 ," {24}

.393 ' ,J15/6410 ," {25}

, ; 67 ' ,J15/6384 ," ; 376 ' ,(14 ,) - {26}
,28 , ; 156 ' ,(6 ,) ; 69 ' ,J15/6410
.76-75 ' ,(" ") 10

.52-50 ' ,J15/6410 , ;254-252 ,67 ' ,J15/6384 ," {27}

.393 ' ,J15/6410 ," {28}

, ' {29}
. 12 10
.
42 ' " :
; 100- 79-77 ( ) ,
100- 30-25 - 7 -
.

(3) J15/6410 ," (2) ;J15/6362 ," (1) {*29}
' , , , (4) .234 ' ,(6 ,)
.J15/6382, 6384, 6409, 6410 ," ,- (5) ; 144

. Gorra Co.; Frankainal & Schinfer : {30}
. ;126 ,67 ,14 ,9-8 ' ,J15/6384 ," Co.; Morphin de Pyron Co
.428-426 ,191 ,129-126 ,33 ,5 ' ,J15/6410

. 11- 7 - {31}
- 4.1- '
. 45.10 28.70 - .
12.70 ,' , , , , 7.17
. 0.90 0.88 .
.404-403 ' ,J15/6410 , ;67 ' ,J15/6384 ," .

.86-85 ' ,J15/6410 ," {32}

;228 ' ,J15/6384 , ;389-388 ,86-85 ' ,J15/6410 ," {33}
.146-145 ' ,(12 ,)

.236-233 ' ,(6 ,) {34}

.314 ' ,J15/6384 ," {35}

.214 ' ,(1905) " " , {36}


,94 ,59 , {37}
.37


   
               
       
   


 



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